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Posts Tagged ‘migration’

Urban migration & child immunization in Nigeria

April 19, 2010 Leave a comment

BMC Public Health. 2010 Mar 9;10:116.

Migration and child immunization in Nigeria: individual- and community-level contexts.

Full-text: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/116

Antai D. Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. theangelstrust.nigeria@gmail.com

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-preventable diseases are responsible for severe rates of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Despite the availability of appropriate vaccines for routine use on infants, vaccine-preventable diseases are highly endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Widespread disparities in the coverage of immunization programmes persist between and within rural and urban areas, regions and communities in Nigeria. This study assessed the individual- and community-level explanatory factors associated with child immunization differentials between migrant and non-migrant groups.

METHODS: The proportion of children that received each of the eight vaccines in the routine immunization schedule in Nigeria was estimated. Multilevel multivariable regression analysis was performed using a nationally representative sample of 6029 children from 2735 mothers aged 15-49 years and nested within 365 communities. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to express measures of association between the characteristics. Variance partition coefficients and Wald statistic i.e. the ratio of the estimate to its standard error were used to express measures of variation.

RESULTS: Individual- and community contexts are strongly associated with the likelihood of receiving full immunization among migrant groups. The likelihood of full immunization was higher for children of rural non-migrant mothers compared to children of rural-urban migrant mothers. Findings provide support for the traditional migration perspectives, and show that individual-level characteristics, such as, migrant disruption (migration itself), selectivity (demographic and socio-economic characteristics), and adaptation (health care utilization), as well as community-level characteristics (region of residence, and proportion of mothers who had hospital delivery) are important in explaining the differentials in full immunization among the children.

CONCLUSION: Migration is an important determinant of child immunization uptake. This study stresses the need for community-level efforts at increasing female education, measures aimed at alleviating poverty for residents in urban and remote rural areas, and improving the equitable distribution of maternal and child health services.

Categories: Nigeria Tags: ,

Migration and Child Immunization in Nigeria: Individual- and community-level contexts

March 9, 2010 Leave a comment

Vaccine-preventable diseases are responsible for severe rates of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Despite the availability of appropriate vaccines for routine use on infants, vaccine-preventable diseases are highly endemic throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Widespread disparities in the coverage of immunization programmes persist between and within rural and urban areas, regions and communities in Nigeria.

This study assessed the individual- and community-level explanatory factors associated with child immunization differentials between migrant and non-migrant groups.

Methods: The proportion of children that received each of the eight vaccines in the routine immunization schedule in Nigeria was estimated. Multilevel multivariable regression analysis was performed on a nationally representative sample of 6029 children from 2735 mothers aged 15-49 years and nested within 365 communities. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to express measures of association between the characteristics.

Results: The pattern of full immunization clusters within families and communities. Findings provide support for the traditional migration hypotheses, and show that individual-level characteristics, such as, migrant disruption (migration itself), selectivity (demographic and socio-economic characteristics), and adaptation (health care utilization), as well as community-level characteristics (region of residence, and proportion of mothers who had hospital delivery) are important in explaining the differentials in full immunization among the children.

Conclusions: Migration is an important determinant of child immunization uptake. This study stresses the need for community-level efforts at increasing female education, measures aimed at alleviating poverty for residents in urban and remote rural areas, and improving the equitable distribution of maternal and child health services.

Author: Diddy Antai Credits/Source: BMC Public Health 2010, 10:116

Categories: Nigeria Tags:

Pune, India – Root of urban migration: Not enough water to drink

September 15, 2008 Leave a comment

Pune, September 12 – It is the scarcity of drinking water resources that is causing people to migrate from rural parts of the state, especially the drought-prone regions, said Richard Mahapatra of Wateraid India on the sidelines of the first consultation meeting for preparation of the Citizens’ Report on Domestic Water and Sanitation.

“It is not so much the lack of water for irrigation. If people lose crops, they can still depend on public wage schemes like NREGS, but if they do not have drinking water, they cannot get a water bottle,” said Mahapatra.

Water Aid has been collaborating with over 220 citizens’ groups across the country and over 10 groups attended the first meeting today, where groups pointed to the existing network and lacunae in promoting equitable water accessibility. The Citizens’ Report, which is expected by December 2009, will highlight domestic water, sanitation and hygiene related issues from the citizens’ point of view.

More – expressindia

Categories: India Tags: ,
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