Ecohealth. 2009 Jun 6.
Effect of Women’s Perceptions and Household Practices on Children’s Waterborne Illness in a Low Income Community. by El Azar GE, Habib RR, Mahfoud Z, El-Fadel M, Zurayk R, Jurdi M, Nuwayhid I.
An ecosystem approach to human health was adopted in a community-based study carried out in Bebnine, an underserved town in Lebanon. The objective of the study is to examine the association between women’s household practices and diarrhea among children in a setting where contaminated drinking water and intestinal diseases are common.
A total of 280 women were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on 712 children between the ages of 6 and 14. The study instrument included determinants of diarrhea such as sociodemographic characteristics, water, sanitation, hygiene practices, gender variables, and behavioral risk factors. Multivariate regression analysis was employed to examine the association between water handling practices and diarrhea.
The prevalence of diarrhea is 5%. Female children are more likely to suffer from diarrhea than male children (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.19-5.62). Treatment of drinking water at the household level and the use of drinking water for cooking and the preparation of hot beverages are protective against diarrhea (OR = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.03-0.65). Female caretakers’ behaviors such as daily bathing and seeking medical care at times of illness are protective against diarrhea in children.
The findings suggest that diarrhea is a gendered health problem. Female children, who are generally more involved in household activities than male children, are at higher risk of suffering from diarrhea. Female caretakers’ personal hygiene, household practices, and perceptions of diarrhea are additional risk factors. Intervention activities would be more effective if based on a better understanding of gender roles and household power relations.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2008 Dec;5(4):213-29. Pathogenic Microorganisms Associated with Childhood Diarrhea in Low-and-Middle Income Countries: Case Study of Yaoundé – Cameroon.
Yongsi HB. Department of Nursing and Human Sciences, University of Chicoutimi/555, boulevard
de l’Université Chicoutimi (QC), G7H 2B1, Canada E-Mail: Blaise_nguendoemail@example.com.
Notwithstanding significant advancement in the understanding of pathogenesis and management, diarrheal illnesses remain one of the principal causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. Infections account for most illnesses, with pathogens employing ingenious mechanisms to establish disease. In 2002, an interdisciplinary program “Populations et al. Espaces à Risques SANitaires” (PERSAN) was set up under the patronage of the Development Research Institute (IRD).
Focused on health in Cameroon’s urban environment, the program mainly sought to identify diarrhea risk factors in Yaoundé. So for, a cross-sectional epidemiological study in children aged 6-59 months was carried out using a standardized protocol. The survey was initiated in 2002 and conducted during April to June in the year 2005. 3,034 stool samples were collected from children in twenty neighbourhoods in Yaoundé and examined at the Epidemiology and Public Health Laboratory of the Cameroon Pasteur Institute. About 60% of the patients were aged less than two years and 52% were male. Among the 437 patients with the diarrheal disease, 260 were found to be of infectious etiology, i.e. micro organism was detected in 59.5% of the cases. Out of which, 10 (03.8%), 96 (36.9%), and 154 (59.2%) were respectively caused by pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria and pathogenic parasites.
Higher prevalence was found in overcrowded and under supply spontaneous settlement (78.4%) than in less crowded and formal residential settlement (21.5%). Etiologic data on diarrheal diseases and their spatial distribution are important tools for public health management and control strategic planning.