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Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria

Environmental Health Perspectives, June 2010

Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization

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Diddy Antai and Tahereh Moradi Division of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden

Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality).

Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under‑5 mortality between 1983 and 2003 in Nigeria. We assessed whether urban area socioeconomic disadvantage has an impact on under-5 mortality.

Methods: Urban under-5 mortality rates were directly estimated from the 1990, 1999, and 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed on data for 2,118 children nested within data for 1,350 mothers, who were in turn nested within data for 165 communities.

Results: Urban under-5 mortality increased as urban population steadily increased between 1983 and 2003. Urban area disadvantage was significantly associated with under-5 mortality after adjusting for individual child- and mother-level demographic and socioeconomic characteristics.

Conclusions: Significant relative risks of under-5 deaths at both individual and community levels underscore the need for interventions tailored toward community- and individual-level interventions. We stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.

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  1. charug211
    August 2, 2010 at 6:09 am

    There are thousands of women who deliver their babies in such unhygienic conditions that neither the baby nor the mother, survives for more than a few days- in fact, for not even a few hours. Is it not up to us to make sure that this does not happen…

    Be the voice for the millions people to REDUCE CHILD MORTALITY In India
    Stand Up Take Action 2010.We need you…

    Globally more than 173 Million people stood up against poverty in 2009, a Guinness World Record!

    Let us break this record in 2010!

    It is Time for You to STAND UP AGAINST POVERTY NOW!
    Join us on Facebook at http://www.facebook.com/unmcampaignINDIA
    Follow us on Twitter at http://twitter.com/unmcampaignIND

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